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  • FIRST PHASE (Detoxification)
  • SECOND PHASE (Rehabilitation)
  • THIRD PHASE (Detoxification)
  • FOURTH PHASE (Reeducation)
  • FIFTH PHASE (Recovery)
  • SIXTH PHASE (Upkeep)
FIRST PHASE (Detoxification)

It is the shortest period of the process, it is a critical period because it is complex and involves therapeutic interventions that usually must be treated at hospital. The use of psychotropic drugs is indicated in most cases. It is based on the management of acute intoxication to substances and the prevention or treatment of abstinence. The length for detoxification period ranges between 15-45 days with an average of 30, this will depend on the substance, the degree of intoxication, the time and intensity of consumption, medical and psychiatric comorbidities and the nutritional status of the individual in question . Alcohol´s detoxification and especially opiates are prolonged, since the onset of abstinence may be delayed and prolonged. The use of psychotropic drugs in this phase is aimed above all at the prevention and management of abstinence (therapeutic substitute).

Treatment objectives

  • Interrupt consumption
  • Management of acute poisoning
  • Prevention of abstinence
  • Management of abstinence if symptoms have already started.
  • Treatment of comorbid and coexisting psychiatric symptoms (induced or precipitated by the substance in case of dual pathology).
SECOND PHASE (Rehabilitation)

Rehabilitating is a term to describe the action of “re-enabling or restitution of someone or something to their former state”, in this case to their sanity (without the disturbance of psychoactive drugs) psychologically, to the family and the society, is a form of psychosocial rehabilitation. This phase is based on the patient begins to live without the need for drugs, and return to their previous activities, which change their mental and behavioral structures which lead to change. It basically divides into two well-defined therapeutic processes, detoxification and reeducation. Rehabilitation phase is medium length, it will vary depending on the program used and the country where it is carried out, but it oscillates in our environment of 1-2 years , it is usually done in hospitalization either in an addiction clinic or in a therapeutic community, the deinternation is given progressively in a therapeutic process called hospital day.

THIRD PHASE (Detoxification)

Detoxification is the specific therapeutic process in which the patient is helped to live free of drugs, to not need drug for keep well, neither to obtain pleasure, nor to avoid the adaptive pain of life and its personal limitations; what is wanted is for the patient is to focus their energies on cultivating other activities. Psychotropic drugs in this phase are indicated to control the psychological symptoms that lead to consumption, such as anxiety, sadness, frustration, insomnia, among others. There are also some drugs currently developed called “Anticraving” that substantially reduce the intense and irresistible desire for substance use, but these have an important limitation that those available in the market are not related to all psychoactive substances (they do not serve to prevent Craving in all substances, nor with the same efficacy), and is a clinical area still in development with much future potential.

FOURTH PHASE (Reeducation)

This therapeutic process complements the previous one and focuses on generating profound changes in the patient’s lifestyles and psychosocial habits, the word is re-educating, (Be taught again), the person is supposed to have learned his habits wrongly and this drove it to consumption and its perpetuation, by changing habits by teaching them healthier habits based on moral values, prosocial behavior and discipline, recovery and upkeep can be obtained. The addicted patient converts his life into a scaffold or structure just to facilitate consumption, and to live in it, irresponsible behavior (at work at home with children), offending, stealing, sleeping during the day and being awake at night. , is ungovernable to social norms of coexistence, becomes possessive egocentric, liar among other effects of character. The subculture that is formed around drugs will always go against the social norms of appropriate coexistence, for this reason as soon as the patient goes deeper into the mentioned subculture its get isolated from society, so in severe stages of evolution they end up being misnamed “disposable”.

FIFTH PHASE (Recovery)

This phase is the definitive one to reach the complete and lasting improvement before the illness. It begins once the rehabilitation ends and lasts on average 4 years. It is characterized by the maintenance of abstinence (in this case, abstinence is understood as zero consumption), the perpetuation and strengthening of skills relearned, to generate lasting neurological and psychosocial changes that guarantee abstinence.

The patient must continue in controls for psychiatry and with psychotropic drugs if appropriate, individual and group psychotherapies. Patients are advised to attend therapeutic support groups such as alcoholics and anonymous narcotics. From here a very popular adage is extracted in addictions “the support groups are for the addicts, like the insulin for the diabetic”.


It is the final phase of the process, but the most extensive and prolonged; understand that addiction is a chronic disease (for life, like other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes), for this reason requires permanent treatment for life. It begins after 4 years and is indefinite, it is interrupted only with a relapse (return to consumption). It is characterized by putting into practice what has been learned in recovery, many patients in this phase have returned to integrate almost entirely into society (has a job, a family, children and emotional stability). Many patients still need to assist the psychiatrist, receive psychotropic drugs and continue in individual and / or group therapies, which if considered essential in the process is to attend the aforementioned therapeutic support groups.

Note: Patients suffering from dual pathology must continue in controls with psychiatry, treatment with individual and / or group therapy psychotherapy and attend support groups indefinitely.


M otivational interview

I ndividual Therapy (cognitive-psychodynamic).

G roup therapy.

O ccupational therapy.

R ecreational Therapy and Sports.

F amily therapy.

T herapy of NA and AA

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Center Care for dependents to drugs
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